DIRECTIONS: Please contribute to each answer, regardless of the book you are reading.
Be careful not to delete each other's writing.

What were the causes of the migration?
Pajamas: Nazi concentration camps
(KS): Nazi Concentration camps caused the forced migration of millions of European Jews. Nazi concentration camps were the result of the Anti-Semitism the party promoted.
(DP): The concentration camps created as well as the ghettos created forced the European Jews to be constantly migrating to new areas, Poland, Russia etc. Furthermore, while not mentioned in the book, following the liberation of the concentration camps Jews were forced to migrate to new places and create knew Jewish settlements in various areas of the world.
Rabbit Proof Fence:
(JP) Aboriginal and half-white, half-aboriginal children were taken from their homes to be raised as whites by the state. In this story, three captured girls try to return home.
(KS): European supremacy and regional power.
(WC): Most Hindu's in area designated as Muslim Pakistan, and most Muslims in area designated as Secular India by Brit. Govt.
(KS): Ancient Hindu-Muslim tensions resulted in fighting and the creation of the Muslim state of Pakistan as a refuge for Muslims and an end to the fighting.
(KG): With the fight for independence from British rule, Indian nationalists fought to partition country of India into two separate nations- one for Indian Hindus and one for Indian Muslims.
(EH):
What were the causes of the migration?
The migration was caused by Hitler using Jews and other minorities as scapegoats in an effort to gain power for both himself as a political leader and for Germany, whom suffered many setbacks after the end of WWI

(LS)1. Under Adolf Hitler, Nazi germany forced Jews into concentration camps because they felt that they were a worthless minorty and wanted to drive them out of Germany's political and cultural life.
(KA) When the English came into Australia, they wanted to live in their own communities living the life they were accustomed to at home, and keeping the aborigines out. The white men had no respect for the natives; they killed both the men and the women, took them out to islands to strand them there, took over their land, choked their food supply, imprisoned them for not following their own English law, and destroyed their society. Therefore, settlements settlements (such as the one mentioned in this book, Jigalog) were established for the aborigines. There, aborigines could get food rations, blankets, tobacco, and stay on the reserves, and the whites didn’t have to worry about contacts with them, while the aborigines could be “safe” from white men. Also, there the British police officers could keep an eye on them. Furthermore, boarding “schools” were established for half-native and half-white children who started being born (which include the main characters in this book). These children were believed to be intellectually superior, so policemen took them off the reserves to these schools to be taught to be servants.

(MK) The movement of Whites into Australia forced indigenous peoples to move off of their land and into forced settlements, and mixed-race individulas were moved into boarding schools.
(PL) The migration was created by the long-standing conflicts between Muslims and Hindus in South Asia and due to the grant of independence from Britain, which controlled all of South Asia.
(PD) The migration in Rabbit proof fence was cauised at first by the white Europeans forcing the Aboriginals to leave their homes but then most people migrated voluntarily in search of jobs and new homes

Was it forced? If so, by whom?

Pajamas: Migration of Jews forced by the Nazis, Nazis willingly migrated to run camps when ordered by Hitler
(KS): Jews were forced to move by the Nazis- they were rounded onto trains and sent to concentration camps- and Germans moved as a result of World War II and the creation of concentration camps. For example, Bruno's father moved to run the Auschwitz concentration camp under Hitler's orders.
(DP): Jews were forced to migrate by the Nazis to the concentration camps and ghettos, where they were eventually killed. Along with the Jews, the Nazi soldiers had to migrate to the concentration camps as well in order to run them effectively, just like Bruno's father.
Rabbit Proof Fence:
(JP): Yes. The girls were forcefully captured from their homes in Jigalong and taken thousands of miles away. They then ran away from their captors and tried to return home.
(KS): This migration was forced by government officials, who believed it was in societies' best interest.
(WC): Practically, the geographic border made by Britain made a scramble in society for people to be on their own 'side' and get rid of those who did not 'belong'.
(PD) The migration was forced by the British officials and the new settlers moving onto the aboriginals' land
(KS): The Muslim-Hindu cross migration was not necessarily forced, but there was pressure on these ethnic groups to move to their respective countries as soon as possible, or risk violence or forced deportation.
(EH) Was it forced? If so, by whom?
The migration of many groups of people, particularly Jews, to concentration camps was forced. Members of the Nazi party, under Adolf Hitler coerced millions into such camps.
(LS)
The migration of Jews into concentration camps was severely forced by Nazi germany, which was led by Hitler.
(KA)It was both forced and voluntary. At first, migration to Jigalog was forced by police officers. However, those who weren’t discovered and forced to migrate eventually ended up doing so anyways because they could sleep there without having to worry about being shot in the middle of the night by white men, could stay on land without having to worry about it being taken away, and could get food rations rather than having to search for a constantly decreasing supply of food. It became a safe haven for natives. With the boarding schools however, migration was absolutely forced. None of the kids wanted to be torn away from their families to go somewhere far away from their family’s reservation, but all the half-white children were forced to be carried away by officials who worked for the government.

(MK) Th original movements were forces, because the Whites moved onto the land and made them move, but then their journey to try to reestablish homes for themselves was voluntary.
(PL) Although there could be the potential of deportation and violence if they did not move to either India or Pakistan, the migrations in and out of both countries were more related to pressures than force.
(KG) In the book they do write about a certain amount of violence and somewhat unofficial police force that tries to enforce the migration of Muslims to Pakistan, away from Mano Majra in India. However, a lot of the migration was fueled by religious and racial intolerance of both parties (the Muslims and the Hindus/Sikhs) which led to mass migrations by choice. There was also this huge amount of pressure on both religions to hate each other, thus wanting migration, although we saw a different scenario in Mano Majra, where Muslims and Sikhs had actually lived in considerable harmony.

What were the key features of the process of migration?
Pajamas: soldiers forced Jews and Polish to leave home, railroads specifically made for transport of prisoners with crowded carriages
(KS): Nazis forced "undesirables" (Jews, Polish, handicapped, Gypsies, homosexuals, etc.) to leave their homes and transported them to work or concentration camps in unsanitary cattle cars.
(DP): Inititally, Jews were forced into ghettos, for example the Warsaw Ghetto, where all the Jews in the area were kept so they could be designated. From these ghettos the Jews were put on trains and transported to the concentration camps.
Rabbit Proof Fence:
(JP): It was forced, and focused on children. It was also intended to make the black children become "white," instead of killing or exiling them like many other societies. Finally, the children were transported by government officials.
(KS): This (forced) migration was focused on changing children through education and upbringing. Interestingly, it challenged the idea of racial inferiority through the idea that cultural traits can be manipulated.
(PD) the migration was used in order to re-educate aboriginal children in western ways to make them more european and less savage
(WC): Violence & border fights between Hindus, Muslims, & Sikhs, and mass migration on trains, very little order.
(KS): As ethnicities fled to respective countries, usually by train, there were conflicts and violence, which lead to extremely high casualties.
(EH)
What were the key features of the process of migration?
Often times Jews and others persecuted lost control over their businesses and means of living through slander and propaganda against followers of the Jewish faith. Shortly after many Jews were forced to live in ghettos with terrible living conditions, while less lucky individuals were sent to concentration camps either by train, cattle car, or forced marches.
(LS)
At first the Jews were denied legal social and economic rights and then it escalated to them not being able to gain citizenship. Then this lead to forcing the Jews to work and live in ghetto's, and then got to a point where Hitler established the concentration camps.
(KA) Englishmen who didn’t want to deal with aborigines; government officials to transport natives, policemen to track them down if they tried to run away, and superintendents to keep an eye over everything; for transportation, trains, ships, early versions of cars; people who were taken to the reserves were natives, while half-white children were taken to the boarding “schools” to be raised by whites; the reservations for natives and the inhumane conditions in the schools (which were unsafe for both the whites and the children there. Also, the networks of police stations to keep everything in check.

(MK) White officials were appointed to force the movement of indigenous peoples and to supervise them on their journeys and in their new forced settlements and schools.
(PL) The process of migration between India and Pakistan was very unorganized, and was usually on many of the subcontinent's rail lines.
(KG) I'd say that what really defined the Hindu-Muslim migration in this book was the use of violence and transportation via trains. Obviously, the book title Train to Pakistan emphasizes the means by which millions of Indians migrated to their respective countries (India or Pakistan, depending on their religious affiliation). Huge amounts of violence ensued during the process, such as the train full of dead Sikhs that rolled into the station at Mano Majra. Another key feature is the nationalistic drive that fueld the migrations.


What were the results:
For the individuals in the text
Pajamas: Bruno died in a gas chamber after deciding to enter the camp to explore and getting mistaken for a prisoner; Shmuel starves in the concentration camp, loses his father, and finally dies in the gas chamber with Bruno; Bruno's family mourns for Bruno's death
(KS): Every participant in this "migration" ended up losing: the prisoners (and Bruno) died and their jailors (Bruno's family) mourned.
(DP: The results were negative considering, ironically, Bruno dies in the gas chambers that had murdered millions of the Jews Hitler wanted to rid of so badly.
(WC): Hukum Chand is haunted by his own corruption, but believes he is unable to do good, Juggut Singh and Iqbal Singh are both arrested for murder and presented with the risky option of sacrificing themselves to protect a train of the towns muslim population, only Juggut does so, while Iqbal is left to ponder morality.
(KA) An intense desire to escape the school they were brought to far away from home, so they escaped by traveling by foot for months because it was their only option. It was very dangerous for them because they were in the wilderness and running from the police, and they became very tired, hungry, sore, and wounded, but eventually two of them reached their home in Jigalog, while the other was caught by the white men.
(MK) The main characters (3 girls) in the book ran away from their school and after a long month of running from police and barely surviving on little food, losing 1 to captors, 2 of them made it back to their home.
(PD) The result was that the 3 main characters migrated back to their originals by foot 1500 miles away but one of them died on the way there
(PL) Ultimately we see Juggut and Iqbal are arrested but with a moral conflict of whether they should save themselves or a train full of local muslims. As a result, Iqbal remains internally conflicted and Juggust sacrifices himself. Also, Hukum is internally conflicted as well and is tormented by the bad things he has done, and despite that still thinks that he is unable to do good things.
For the region
Pajamas: thousands of Jews, disabled/handicapped people, Poles, homosexuals, gypsies, and "dissenting" Christians died
(KS): Hitler's "ethnic cleansing" nearly successful: thousands of "undesirables" displaced and killed by concentration camps.
(DP): The results of this large scale migration were terrible leaving 6,000,000 Jews dead from the Nazi death camps and many others who were discriminated, homosexuals, gypsies etc., dead as well.
Rabbit Proof Fence:
(JP): The Australians continued capturing children until 1970. While there is more equality today there is still mistreatment of aborigines and racism prevalent in Australia.
(KS): These childrens' experiences definitely impacted the social hiearchy existing in Australia.
(WC): Over two million dead, over ten million displaced, and four consecutive Indo-Pakistan Wars (one occurred the very year of the separation, 1947).
(KS): Millions died and were displaced with the creation of Pakistan, and this conflict lead to the Indo-Pakistan Wars.
(LS)
In the book the main character Bruno, a young boy who is the son of a high ranked German officer, moves with his family out of their home in Berlin to the concentration camp Aushwitz. While his father is serving duty as the head officer at the camp, Bruno meets a Jewish boy who is a prisoner at the camp, Shmeul, who not only became a good friend to him but also gave him first hand views on how life is on the other side of the fence. He describes the torture,starvation, and poor living conditions him and the other Jewish immates have to endure.
(KA)
Reserves continue to exist this day, although the boarding schools and the capturing has stopped, and the conditions are better on the reserves. Still, many children never saw their families again, families were torn apart, and native aboriginal culture and tradition was hindered. Also, racism continues to this day.
(MK) although some of these people were able to be integrated into the new White-run society, most indigenous peoples were kept on their settlements and a HUGE social desparity, accompanied by HUGE racism, arose.
(PL) As a result of these migrations, there is an intensley strained relationship between Pakistan and India, and millions have died due to related violence. Because of the unorganized nature of migrations, there are still areas such as the Kashmir region, that are still fought about to this day. Conflict has risen between the two since the original split, such as Bengladesh's (formerly East Pakistan) independence from Pakistan in which India aided Bengladesh in 1971, and the nuclear arms race in which both nations produced successful warheads in 1998.
Pajamas: Holocaust was cause of World War II
(KS): The Holocaust brought attention to the atrocities Hitler committed, and awakened the international consciousness to the issues of racism and genocide.
Rabbit Proof Fence:
(DP): The eventual liberation of these concentration camps allowed to world to see the awful things Hitler had done and left the world in scared by the atrocities.
(JP): While this migration didn't really have any major effects on the rest of the world, it was definitely an example of the arrogance and feelings of
supremacy the Europeans had.
(KS): This migration demonstrated the feelings of European cultural supremacy, and showed the negative results of imperialism.
(WC): Indo-Pakistan wars resulted in millions of deaths and each forced the U.N. or U.S.A. to stop them, especially after both developed nuclear weapons in the 1999 war.
(KS): The Hindu-Muslim- Sikh conflicts of 1947 both challenged and supported the idea, begun after World War II, that different ethnicities should have separate countries to protect each from racial tensions: although a different ethnic-based nation was successfully formed (Pakistan) its creation lead to millions of deaths.
(LS)In this camp, Aushwitz, and many other camps like such during world war II, the immates were severely tortured through many appauling and inhumane acts. Anyone who was considered inferior by the Nazis such as non christians and handicapped were thrown into these death camps throughout which was established throughout Europe.
(KA)
This particular kind of migration was more secluded from the rest of the world, since it only had to do with the native Australian aborigines. Still, the world stunted the growth and continuation of one of the world’s oldest cultures and people. It was also another demonstration of the terrible effects of forced migrations that were caused by Europeans in their colonies
(MK) The migrations in this book effected the world because at the time of colonialism, this was just another part of the map that proved that Europeans were 'superior' to all others, adding to the phrase 'The SUn never sets on British soil."
(EH): What were the results:
For the individuals in the text
Bruno and his family have to move near a concentration camp because of his father's job as a Nazi military official. He meets Shmuel, a Jewish boy who is also eight years old, whose family was forced to migrate to the camp that Bruno's father is controlling. Throughout the novel readers witness the atrocities Shmuel must endure, including starvation and beatings, and eventually both Shmuel and Bruno die in the camp's gas chambers after an unsuccessful search for Shmuel's missing father. The audience then observes the grief of Bruno's family as they learn of his death.

For the region
In this region and all around Europe people were forced into concentration camps where they'd suffer through torture, crematorias, shootings, gas chambers, medical experiments, starvation, and other forms of abuse. In these areas Jews as well as homosexuals, gypsies, the handicapped, the elderly, "dissenting" Christians, and other groups deemed inferior by the Nazis suffered enormous losses.

Internationally
Throughout the entire Holocaust approximately 11,000,000 individuals perished, including around 6,000,000 Jews. The effects of the Holocaust and WWII are dramatic politically, economically, religiously, socially, intellectually, artistically, and demographically. Eventually Hitler committed suicide, but the results of one of man's darkest periods will never be forgotten.

(KG): To start, millions of people died from both sides of the migration (Hindus and Muslims). Racial and religious tensions were not put to rest at all, which was the aim for the original establishment for the separate Muslim nation of Pakistan. So many people were displaced, picked up and moved to a completely foreign place despite any ties to their home community. This led to extreme poverty, since people had to abandon their jobs and completely start fresh in their new country that was supposed to be their designated "homeland". Another result was the Indo-Pakistan Wars, where nuclear weapons were created and caused waves of distress not only throughout southern Asia, but around the world.