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Sunday, June 2

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    {http://i1087.photobucket.com/albums/j464/mariashivers2674/foot-problems.gif} Welcome to the Land of Hope Project,
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Monday, April 15

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Thursday, March 7

  1. page When Asia was the World edited When Asia Was the World {51-PowNeAkL__SL500_AA240_.jpg} Capture His Heart and Make Him Love Yo…

    When Asia Was the World
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    Capture His Heart and Make Him Love You Forever
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    Post a short synopsis of each chapter including lessons related to migration and trade. Also, feel free to post links to related resources and news articles.
    Chapter 1: Monasteries and Monarchs
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Friday, February 22

Tuesday, November 13

  1. page When Asia was the World edited ... {Xuanzang google map.kmz} {Xuanzang's travels.kmz} ... young monk readi reading class…
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    {Xuanzang google map.kmz}
    {Xuanzang's travels.kmz}
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    young monk readireading classical texts
    At age 26, he became dissatisfied; he did not know which doctrine to follow from the many different Buddhist schools. He decided to travel west to the center of Buddhism to clear his doubts. The Tang government forbade commoners to travel west, so his journey was illegal and the government circulated warrant for arrest. Along the way, his two companions and guide deserted him and, he faced difficult roads with hot winds and sand. He was given provisions at government tower after being left alone for three days without food or water. Although he was supposed to have been taken back to his monastery, the head sentry at the tower was Buddhist and ignored the government request for his capture. Xuanzang received a royal escort from King Qu-wentai of Taklamakan Desert he was a notable teacher wherever he went. He traveled north of Taklamakan Desert to Lake Issy Kul. The king at the lake honored him with 30 silk robes. Silk and grain were universally accepted currency between China and nomads. The royal meal was sugar from India and rice from China. He went west through Turkic, Mongolian, and Uighur regions. He followed Amudarya River upstream, and then went southeast to Balkh and Afghanistan. He went east into Kashmir and the valleys of Himalayas. Wherever he went he left his mark: he listened to teachings, worshipped, and debated doctrine. He crossed Himalayas to get to India and found many flourishing monasteries, but also many ancient sites that were deserted. He stayed for a total of 7 years. He studied, copied manuscripts, listened to teachings, participated in rituals and discussions, and visited Buddhist sites. He decided to return to China to explain what he had learned. He brought back 657 books, relics, statues, plants, and seeds. He apologized to the emperor for leaving illegally and was forgiven and provided with imperial escort.
    Xuanzang's total travels added to 1500 miles and still within institutional support of Buddhism. His pilgrimage set off diplomatic missions between China and India and both sides learned trade possibilities. Foreigners were welcomed in the imperial capital and influenced fashions of time. He was asked to become high official, but chose to stay a Buddhist monk. He supervised a team of translators and taught Buddhist texts in Chang’an. He designed and helped build a library for texts until the end of his life.
    (view changes)
  2. page When Asia was the World edited ... {Xuanzang google map.kmz} {Xuanzang's travels.kmz} ... young monk reading readi class…
    ...
    {Xuanzang google map.kmz}
    {Xuanzang's travels.kmz}
    ...
    young monk readingreadi classical texts
    At age 26, he became dissatisfied; he did not know which doctrine to follow from the many different Buddhist schools. He decided to travel west to the center of Buddhism to clear his doubts. The Tang government forbade commoners to travel west, so his journey was illegal and the government circulated warrant for arrest. Along the way, his two companions and guide deserted him and, he faced difficult roads with hot winds and sand. He was given provisions at government tower after being left alone for three days without food or water. Although he was supposed to have been taken back to his monastery, the head sentry at the tower was Buddhist and ignored the government request for his capture. Xuanzang received a royal escort from King Qu-wentai of Taklamakan Desert he was a notable teacher wherever he went. He traveled north of Taklamakan Desert to Lake Issy Kul. The king at the lake honored him with 30 silk robes. Silk and grain were universally accepted currency between China and nomads. The royal meal was sugar from India and rice from China. He went west through Turkic, Mongolian, and Uighur regions. He followed Amudarya River upstream, and then went southeast to Balkh and Afghanistan. He went east into Kashmir and the valleys of Himalayas. Wherever he went he left his mark: he listened to teachings, worshipped, and debated doctrine. He crossed Himalayas to get to India and found many flourishing monasteries, but also many ancient sites that were deserted. He stayed for a total of 7 years. He studied, copied manuscripts, listened to teachings, participated in rituals and discussions, and visited Buddhist sites. He decided to return to China to explain what he had learned. He brought back 657 books, relics, statues, plants, and seeds. He apologized to the emperor for leaving illegally and was forgiven and provided with imperial escort.
    Xuanzang's total travels added to 1500 miles and still within institutional support of Buddhism. His pilgrimage set off diplomatic missions between China and India and both sides learned trade possibilities. Foreigners were welcomed in the imperial capital and influenced fashions of time. He was asked to become high official, but chose to stay a Buddhist monk. He supervised a team of translators and taught Buddhist texts in Chang’an. He designed and helped build a library for texts until the end of his life.
    (view changes)

Sunday, October 28

  1. page When Asia was the World edited ... In this chapter, we learn about the times and travels of Abraham bin Yiju. Born to a Jewish fa…
    ...
    In this chapter, we learn about the times and travels of Abraham bin Yiju. Born to a Jewish family in Tunisia during the 12th century, he started his travels along the North African Mediterranean coast in order to spread letters of introduction from his father, a rabbi, to prominent Jewish traders. Around 1120 C.E. he traveled from Tunisia to Cairo by caravan, continuing over the Red Sea to Yemen where he would spend the majority of his trading life. During this time, Abraham developed an important partnership with Mahmud Ibn Bandar, one of the most prominent traders in Aden (The paramount city for Indian/Egyptian trade). After gaining an important "junior position" beneath Bandar, he was encouraged to enter the spice trade, and enraptured by the thought of traveling to the Indian spice trade to escape the rampant anti-semitism. One, of the spices, pepper, had incredible importance. This was shown in the fact that Ibn Faldan used it to bribe his way across the eastern steppe, and a king named Alaric demanded 3000 pounds of pepper as a ransom of Rome in 408 CE.PP Pepper was a major part of bin Yiju's trading. Almost all records of bin Yiju's life, we learn, were from letters found in the Cairo Geniza. A Geniza is a building where, in medieval times, members of the large Jewish community in Cairo would put documents containing a form of the word God written on them. These were placed here because under Jewish law these documents were sacred and therefore unable to be destroyed. Cairo's dry climate preserved the documents inside the Geniza to this day, and it is to thank for our knowledge of bin Yiju and many others like him. Bin Yiju mainly participated in the trade of the Mediterranean and Red Seas and the western portion of the Indian Ocean, and his travels were influenced by the geography of the political climate of the time. Overall, the main lessons of this chapter were that trade in bin Yiju's time was heavily influenced by familial and religious ties, and supported by (especially in bin Yiju's case) the underlying trade diasporas of a respective people or religion. There were no real legal reinforcements to trade at his time, and instead trade ran along the lines of agreements between and the reputations of individual traders, with fierce competition in the business fueling its strength and profitability.
    Chapter 6: Nobles and Notables: Ibn Batutta, 1325-1356 CE
    ...
    family of judges.Throughoutjudges. Throughout his life,
    ...
    everywhere from Arica,Africa, India and
    ...
    the Middle East.Overall,East. Overall, this was
    ...
    than 73,000 miles.Duringmiles. During his travels,
    Chapter 7: Treaure and Treaty: Ma Huan, 1413-1431 CE
    This chapter told the story of Ma Huan, a Chinese officer who was abord a fleet of 57 vessels from Nanjing, China commanded by Zeng He. His goal on this trip was to docuent the lives of the various towns they went to such as Champa, Java, and Cochin. He compared and contrsasted the unique lifestyles of these cultures. The fleet sailed allong the coasts of India and Africa stopping at various locations to befriend the local people on behalf of the the Chinese Ming dynasty. Ma Huan was transltor of foregin documents threfore his journals are one of the only two remaining documents from these journeys. The expeditions that these ships embarked on were very important to the development of Chinese trade connections, they built a relationship with regional kings and was beneficial to both sides. However, the journey was not repeated as the government decided it was not worth the cost or effort as China began to turn to inward trade.
    ...
    The Asian world, in short, was an active area of trade and communication. New empires united stretches of land that had once be divided by geographical boundaries. They supplied standards in currencies and weights and measures, essential in promoting wide-spread, long-distance trade. Even religions like Buddhism and Islam united people beyond the extent of political boundaries. They spread quickly through travel, trade, and conquest and were quite successful due to their competing ideas and a constant search to meet people's needs. While capital cities were important for administration, it was the medium-sized cities that proved essential to trade and exchange of ideas. The capitals were frequently changed under new leadership, so the smaller cities actually provided a stable trading post for merchants that travelling between the Middle East and China. The products exchanged here were mostly light luxury goods that were easy to transport but also worth a significant amount. Chinese products like silk, tea, and porcelain were some of the more commonly traded objects. However, it is important to note products also varied from the practical, like iron cooking pots, to the impractical, as records indicate of a giraffe that was brought to the imperial court of China. Even things that couldn’t be traded, like disease, spread through this network. For example, the Black Plague originated in China and later moved west, eventually killing 1/3 of Europe’s population. Consequently, medicine and treatments also circulated this area along with other forms of innovation. The numeric system using the placeholder zero was created in India and people in the Middle East used this to begin the basics of algebra and astronomy. Even plants like sugarcane migrated because of its success in many areas and climates. Little government interference facilitated this exchange, with competitive prices driving the market. Many administrations built new roads and implemented armies that would protect them, all paid for by different, experimental forms of taxation. It’s quite clear that throughout this active world, Europe hardly played a role. Its limited contact on the fringes of the trading network evolved separately, only acquiring goods that had passed through many hands. Only when they had realized the enormous amount of profit and potential available in the adjacent areas did they start the race to hold colonies. Their various attempts brought many new ideas to Asians. Traders were customarily representatives of their kings, a new practice to most. Also, the Western belief of profitable politics drove many trade-based wars where new battle tactics were introduced. But it’s before their interference in a highly successful, constantly evolving trade network that is of importance. The Asian world between 500-1500 CE was the origin of world trade and one of the most important revolutions in economy, innovation, and other areas that has shaped the world today.
    top broker forex
    Some individuals on Prilosec may feel the urge to urinate usually. Tests might notice over traditional blood and protein within the urine. Men could experience testicular pain. Blood tests might discover additional glucose in the urine and increased creatinine. Coughing, rashes, and increased blood sugar and blood clots are also possible Prilosec aspect effects.
    (view changes)

Wednesday, October 24

  1. page When Asia was the World edited ... Chapter 5: Pepper and Partnerships: Abraham bin Yiju, (1120-1160 CE) In this chapter, we lear…
    ...
    Chapter 5: Pepper and Partnerships: Abraham bin Yiju, (1120-1160 CE)
    In this chapter, we learn about the times and travels of Abraham bin Yiju. Born to a Jewish family in Tunisia during the 12th century, he started his travels along the North African Mediterranean coast in order to spread letters of introduction from his father, a rabbi, to prominent Jewish traders. Around 1120 C.E. he traveled from Tunisia to Cairo by caravan, continuing over the Red Sea to Yemen where he would spend the majority of his trading life. During this time, Abraham developed an important partnership with Mahmud Ibn Bandar, one of the most prominent traders in Aden (The paramount city for Indian/Egyptian trade). After gaining an important "junior position" beneath Bandar, he was encouraged to enter the spice trade, and enraptured by the thought of traveling to the Indian spice trade to escape the rampant anti-semitism. One, of the spices, pepper, had incredible importance. This was shown in the fact that Ibn Faldan used it to bribe his way across the eastern steppe, and a king named Alaric demanded 3000 pounds of pepper as a ransom of Rome in 408 CE.PP Pepper was a major part of bin Yiju's trading. Almost all records of bin Yiju's life, we learn, were from letters found in the Cairo Geniza. A Geniza is a building where, in medieval times, members of the large Jewish community in Cairo would put documents containing a form of the word God written on them. These were placed here because under Jewish law these documents were sacred and therefore unable to be destroyed. Cairo's dry climate preserved the documents inside the Geniza to this day, and it is to thank for our knowledge of bin Yiju and many others like him. Bin Yiju mainly participated in the trade of the Mediterranean and Red Seas and the western portion of the Indian Ocean, and his travels were influenced by the geography of the political climate of the time. Overall, the main lessons of this chapter were that trade in bin Yiju's time was heavily influenced by familial and religious ties, and supported by (especially in bin Yiju's case) the underlying trade diasporas of a respective people or religion. There were no real legal reinforcements to trade at his time, and instead trade ran along the lines of agreements between and the reputations of individual traders, with fierce competition in the business fueling its strength and profitability.
    ...
    Notables: Ibn BatuttaBatutta, 1325-1356 CE
    Ibn Batutta came from a family of judges.Throughout his life, he traveled everywhere from Arica, India and the Philippines to South East Asia and the Middle East.Overall, this was more than 73,000 miles.During his travels, he received his wealth from many notable people.He traveled during the time of the Black Plague when Islam controlled most of Africa and both the Silk Road and India Ocean trade were flourishing.Along the way, he studied, made contacts, and took part in the robes ceremony.He saw the connection between religion and trade, loved travel, and had a passion for religious learning.
    Chapter 7: Treaure and Treaty: Ma Huan, 1413-1431 CE
    ...
    Chapter 8: Blood and Salt: Barbur (1494-1526)
    This chapter follows the life and rule of Barbur, a descendent of Ghenghis Khan. Barbur inherited the throne of his father in 1494, under pressure as the new king. Barbur was only 18 when he captured his first city in 1500, and his military and economic conquests continued until 1526, when his son took over. As a born Khan, Barbur preserved the legacies of his ancient ancestors, specifically his world famous relative, Genghis Khan. The most famous legacy, initiated by Genghis himself, was the "Salt System," an unwritten code where soldiers are "allowed" to serve under commanders and chiefs unrelated to them. This system allowed Barbur to augment his gigantic army with soldiers from nations he had conquered, and also increased the diversity of his army by admitting soldiers of many different ethnicities. Barbur later described specific soldiers who did or did not "keep their salt" in his 800 page memoir: the Baburnama, which is considered by historians to be one of the first Islamic autobiography. He said that those who did keep their salt were loyal, and honored their military leader, and was praised. However, a soldier who didn't keep his salt was disloyal and did not honor his leader. Such behavior was noted, but unpunished. With this salt system in full force, Babur gained a large following as he conquered along the Silk Road that surrounded his homeland of the Fergana Valley in present day Uzbekistan. Another main advantage in Barbur's life was Blood. As a part of the royal Khan family, Barbur was blessed with wealth and fortune all his life, even though the descendants of Genghis are supposedly not all equal. As time went on, Barbur's military success continued, until he captured Kabul, a wealthy trading city, and made it his home, enjoying life at a high class. But the Khan in him was not the only famous blood that ran in Babur's veins. In fact, Babur was a direct descendant of Timur the Lame on his father's side. This gave him the impetus to conquer northern India, as an extension of the then present Timurid Empire. With a large army, assembled through the salt system, Babur was able to conquer Northern India. This, at the same time, ended the Delhi Sultanate. At the helm of power, Babur founded the Mughal Empire, which stood for another 300 years until 1856. When Barbur died in 1530, his grandsons who assumed his rule, once again spreading networks of blood and salt across Asia.
    ...
    Babur portrait {AD1530_Babur_map.jpg}{AD1530_Babur_map.jpg} Babur's Empire
    Chapter 9: Medicines and Misunderstandings: Tomé Pires (1511-1521 CE)
    This chapter followed the life of Tomé Pires, a Portuguese apothecary and government scribe from Lisbon, Portugal, who was one of the men chosen to go on the first diplomatic mission to China. Tomé Pires was born a commoner around 1468 CE to an educated family that had status, and his father was apothecary to John II, the king of Portugal. Pires was an apothecary to Prince Alfonso until the Prince's death in 1491, and he left Portugal for India in 1511 CE with letters of introduction from the chief physician of the king and the head of the overseas department in Lisbon. Soon after arriving in Goa, the governor sent Pires to Malacca to restore order in the newly-captured city. Pires arrived in Malacca, and wrote the Suma Oriental, which was his description of plants, markets and politics in maritime Asia based on what he heard from local traders. Pires's book reveals two core attitudes and assumptions that labelled Pires as an outsider in Asia: First, he divided the world into Moors (Sunni Muslims, who were considered the "enemy"), and Christians (the "ally"), while heathens were potential allies and possible converts, furthermore he brough the Crusades into Asia. Pires considered the Chinese to be natural allies because they were white, but when the Portuguese first made contact with the Chinese, the Chinese fleet fired on the Portuguese thinking they were pirates. The Portuguese continued on to Guangzhou, where they fired salutes and flew flags, insulting the locals, and the Portuguese were only able to establish firendly relations with the court after Pires convinced the officials that firing guns awas a form of respect and that they meant no harm to the chinese. After this, trade went well until the commander of the fleet that was supposed to escort Pires back to Malacca, offended the local Chinese officals. Pires was in Beijjing on a diplomatic mission when an ambassador from Malacca told of the Portuguese assault and conquest of the city, and the old emperor died. The new emperor was controlled by court advisors, and the chinese turned against the Portuguese. The authorities in Guangzhou insisted that Pires write a letter that demanded the return of Malacca to its rightful king, and upon Pires's refusal, the party was put in jail. After a few months, the remaining prisoners were beheaded as punishment for the actions of the Portuguese as a whole. The Portuguese grand plan for control of the Asian maritime world had failed due to many of its assumptions about the Asian world. Though their conquest failed, the Portuguese did have several important effects on the Asian world including the Chinese ban on foreign traders, and they initiated an arms race across the Asian maritime world. Also, Portuguese trade linked the spice islands with Europe. At the end of this chapter, we also learn that Pires might not have been executed with the rest of his expedition, there is a chance that he was banished from Beijjing and lived in a Chinese provincial town until his death from old age.
    ...
    The Asian world, in short, was an active area of trade and communication. New empires united stretches of land that had once be divided by geographical boundaries. They supplied standards in currencies and weights and measures, essential in promoting wide-spread, long-distance trade. Even religions like Buddhism and Islam united people beyond the extent of political boundaries. They spread quickly through travel, trade, and conquest and were quite successful due to their competing ideas and a constant search to meet people's needs. While capital cities were important for administration, it was the medium-sized cities that proved essential to trade and exchange of ideas. The capitals were frequently changed under new leadership, so the smaller cities actually provided a stable trading post for merchants that travelling between the Middle East and China. The products exchanged here were mostly light luxury goods that were easy to transport but also worth a significant amount. Chinese products like silk, tea, and porcelain were some of the more commonly traded objects. However, it is important to note products also varied from the practical, like iron cooking pots, to the impractical, as records indicate of a giraffe that was brought to the imperial court of China. Even things that couldn’t be traded, like disease, spread through this network. For example, the Black Plague originated in China and later moved west, eventually killing 1/3 of Europe’s population. Consequently, medicine and treatments also circulated this area along with other forms of innovation. The numeric system using the placeholder zero was created in India and people in the Middle East used this to begin the basics of algebra and astronomy. Even plants like sugarcane migrated because of its success in many areas and climates. Little government interference facilitated this exchange, with competitive prices driving the market. Many administrations built new roads and implemented armies that would protect them, all paid for by different, experimental forms of taxation. It’s quite clear that throughout this active world, Europe hardly played a role. Its limited contact on the fringes of the trading network evolved separately, only acquiring goods that had passed through many hands. Only when they had realized the enormous amount of profit and potential available in the adjacent areas did they start the race to hold colonies. Their various attempts brought many new ideas to Asians. Traders were customarily representatives of their kings, a new practice to most. Also, the Western belief of profitable politics drove many trade-based wars where new battle tactics were introduced. But it’s before their interference in a highly successful, constantly evolving trade network that is of importance. The Asian world between 500-1500 CE was the origin of world trade and one of the most important revolutions in economy, innovation, and other areas that has shaped the world today.
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    ...
    aspect effects. side effects prilosec
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